cognitive energy

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Back to School: Getting to Know Your Second and Third Grade Readers

Essential Decoding Assessments for Primary Readers Second and third grade is where the ‘rubber hits the road,’ so to speak. While much of kindergarten and first grade reading instruction focuses on learning to read through phonological awareness skills and applying the alphabetic principle, second and third grade begins the transition from ‘learning to read’ toward ‘reading to learn.’

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Making a Case for Word Study Instruction

Systematic, Sequential, Cumulative, Explicit Every year, we inevitably encounter students with a similar reading profile. These are the students who score within the independent range for comprehension. However, oral reading fluency scores tend to indicate a need for support. Closer examination of fluency will likely reveal decreased accuracy with minimal self-corrections. Rate, however, may falsely…